Plagiarism—what it is and how to avoid it
Plagiarism according to the Merriam –Webster dictionary is: the act of using another person’s words or ideas without giving credit. These words and ideas include:
When can one use information without citations? If the information is Common Knowledge a citation is not required. Some examples are:
When writing academic works know your audience; what may be common knowledge for a group of scientists, may not be known by a group of poets.
Tips for preventing Plagiarism
Take careful note of your sources during your research process. Include author(s), title, place of publication, publisher, internet source if applicable, page numbers. More is better, you can always discard unneeded information later. Be sure to indicate which phrases and ideas are yours and which are the work of others. Decide on a strategy for documenting your resources and follow this procedure throughout your research.
When in doubt cite your sources.
For further guidance check with your instructor, your department’s approved citation guide, your librarians.
***When in doubt cite your sources. ***
The Modern Language Association provides the following guidance with regard to plagiarism:
It happens more than you may think.
Kerkvliet, J., & Sigmund, C. L. (1999). Can we control cheating in the classroom? Journal of Economic Education, 30(4), 331-351.
Ashworth, P., Bannister, P., & Thorne, P. (1997). "Guilty in whose eyes? University students' perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment." Studies in Higher Education, 22(2), 187-203. (EJ 549 250)
from the November 22, 1999 issue of U.S. News and World Report
from The Center for Academic Integrity (http://www.academicintegrity.org/)
McCabe, D. L., & Trevino, L. K. (1996). "What we know about cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments." Change, 28(1), 28-33. (EJ 520 088)
Above material from Plagiarism.org: http://www.plagiarism.org
“Like soldiers in a just war, soldiers in a holy war were guiltless of the sin of murder (provided their motives were proper), but more than that, holy warriors could earn salvation by their actions.” Alfred J Andrea, Encyclopedia of the Crusades (United States: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003), 161.
By combining the concepts of the secular just war developed by the Romans, and the Old Testament holy wars fought to further God’s Divine Plan, the Crusades were seen by the medieval Christian West as both just and holy.
Andrea, Encyclopedia of the Crusades, 160-161.
When you put someone else’s thoughts and views on a topic in your own words, you’re paraphrasing.
Why paraphrase rather than quote from the original?
Tips for paraphrasing
Original: As helpful as the military orders were in shoring up the defenses of the crusader states, they were independent of any direct control by the lords and kings whom they assisted, and for that reason alone these same lords needed to create armies that they, and they alone, controlled.
Paraphrase: Lords and kings of the crusader states saw the need to call up armies reporting directly to them, given that military orders, while helpful, were totally independent.
Andrea, Encyclopedia of the Crusades, 212.
"Plagiarism is the act of presenting someone else's words, ideas, or work - whether accidentally or deliberately - as your own work. Source material obtained from internet sources requires the same attentiveness to documentation as from all other sources. Every cadet scholar must properly document the sources of information and ideas received. When in doubt, a good rule is to document any assistance in question."
CONTENT FROM DOCUMENTATION OF ACADEMIC WORK:
Document in detail as you work; this will ensure complete citations and will preclude forgetting the specific passage, page, or URL of original idea.
Document all numbers, facts, direct quotes